Carpet Making In Iran

Carpet Making In Iran – An Iranian man repairs a carpet in the Grand Bazaar in the capital Tehran on September 30, 2020. Photo: AFP/Atta Kenare

Once a rich symbol of Persian culture and a major source of non-oil and gas export revenue, Iran’s carpet industry is emerging under the twin forces of US sanctions. and those caused by covid.

Carpet Making In Iran

Without significant government support and investment, the fast-growing export sector, which normally employs 2.5 million people and supports more than 10 million businesses, will soon be rapidly absorbed, reaching countries that compete in markets regional and international experts and analysts are warning. .

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One million Iranians involved in the carpet industry have already lost their jobs, according to local media.

Iran’s carpet industry survived the chaos that followed the 1979 revolution and the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. Today, several major cities, including Gorgan, Haris, Isfahan, Kashan, Kerman, Mashad, Tabriz and Qom are small rug production centers with patterns and designs unique to each region.

Due to the finesse and labor involved in the materials used and the time it takes to complete each rug, products range in price from $500 to $50,000.

Many factors determine the value of Persian rugs, including the number of knots per square inch, which ranges from 60 to 1,000 knots per inch for thick silk, the use of machine and hand-spun yarn, and the use of natural colors. , size and design.

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Carpet tourism in Iran has a documented history of at least 2,500 years, with generations effectively passing down the art and skills of carpet making to their descendants. Historians consider the Iranian carpet industry to have reached its heyday under Shah Abbas of the Safavid dynasty. He ruled the Persian Empire from 1588 to 1629.

A woman walks into a carpet shop in Tehran’s commercial district. Handmade rugs are highly valued by Iranians. Photo: Morteza Nikoubazl/NurPhoto/AFP

The oldest hand-knotted oriental rug in the world is the Pasirik rug, which was discovered in the Altai Mountains of Siberia in 1948.

Century BC, in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia, its design and manufacture are attributed almost exclusively to the ancient Iranians.

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Today, there are domestic carpet factories in several countries including Afghanistan, Belgium, Canada, China, Egypt, India, Morocco, the Netherlands and Turkey, although experts say many produce Iranian designs and motifs at low cost.

The largest exporter of factory-made rugs. According to officials from the Ministry of Industry, Mines and Commerce, exports that year were worth around 300 million dollars.

In the same year, Iran’s handmade rug exports accounted for 10.9% of world trade, behind only India and Egypt.

The United States has traditionally been a major destination for Iranian rugs, and demand has increased in recent years. Despite yearly tensions, Persian rugs have found new ways to reach American shores.

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Those exports are so important to Iran’s economy and US business interests that a clause in the now-defunct JCPOA clearly states that the US “shall authorize the importation of carpets of Iranian origin into the United States.” As well as food items.

In 2017, when the JCPOA was still being implemented, Iran was the leading exporter of handmade rugs, with exports to the United States worth $125.6 million. In 2018, Iran’s exports to the United States, including carpet exports, declined after President Donald Trump imposed the JCPOA and extensive sanctions.

According to the National Carpet Center of Iran, carpet exports from the Persian Gulf were $238.4 million in 2018, but dropped to just $70.5 million in 2019.

In addition to US punitive measures denying Iran profitable markets in North America and secondary sanctions limiting trade with its Iranian partners, the Covid-19 crisis has also affected the industry.

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In Tabriz, one of Iran’s carpet production centers, 1,100 weaving workshops, 400 carpet washing centers, 95 carpet cleaning services and 2,200 retailers will close, according to local reports.

In the Eastern Province of Azerbaijan, 200,000 carpet growers are already covered by social security insurance. Due to the government’s financial crisis, this number has dropped to 45,000.

The government, financially trapped by US sanctions, is unable to provide immediate relief for the losses suffered by the industry due to the destruction of Covid-19. Meanwhile, rug exporters are coming under pressure from regulations on foreign currency transactions, making overseas sales an increasingly risky business.

Mortesa Miri, a carpet exporter and board member of the Iran Carpet Production and Export Association, said carpet traders who have not yet exported their products must commit to repaying the foreign exchange generated from the sale.

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“After following the customs laws, the trader who has not yet exported the rugs must agree to return the foreign exchange resulting from the sale of the goods through specified channels for a period of four months or one year. The Central Bank of Iran.

“Therefore, businessmen who export carpets abroad but do not sell them on time must pay the foreign currency in their pockets to the Central Bank of Iran for the transaction that did not go through, otherwise the business license will be revoked,” said.

A man repairing a carpet in Tehran’s Grand Bazaar. Clients pay up to $50,000 for the carpet. Photo: Ata Kenare/AFP

Miri believes Iran’s carpet trade is facing an unprecedented decline, with exports in 2019 at a 45-year low. Last year was bad due to the impact of the disaster on business and the associated global economic downturn.

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Iran, Britain, Denmark, Germany, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates still buy a lot of Iranian rugs, while the US market has dried up due to sanctions and others. Exporters say, though without details, that they can avoid sanctions and sell to certain countries.

“Given the high inflation in recent years, purchasing power has been reduced considerably. In addition, production costs have inevitably increased,” said Dariush Akradi, founder of Cpersia online carpet shopping.

“In three or four years, the price has almost doubled, which means that this product has been removed from the basket of consumers.”

However, Akradi said that Iranians love rugs, and even those with low incomes are going out of their way to buy expensive handmade rugs.

Woman Weaving Carpet On Loom Iran Middle East R Ashworth Stock Photo

“The desire for rugs is in the DNA of Iranians, and even low-income families insist on decorating their living rooms with handmade rugs, although they can buy industrial rugs for bedrooms,” he said.

Shayda Mayhian, a rug design graduate and founder of Enzuk Rug Design Group, told Asia Times that during the Covid-19 crisis, her business was mainly affected by government mismanagement and rising costs. of production. designers and weavers.

He believes that the government can take several measures, including providing financial support to manufacturers, facilitating the transport and export of carpets, and reforming the rules for the repatriation of foreign currency earned through exports.

If the government in power continues to produce and market rugs, “Persian rugs will have no future and will become a luxury product produced by a small number of producers for a large number of consumers.” a consumer product”.

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But with the government burdened by sanctions and no early signs of a new US deal with the Biden administration, the funding of national heritage and the protection of technology that many see as a hallmark of Iran’s culture is out of Tehran’s economic reach.

“The government is facing a severe budget deficit and is using ordinary and extraordinary resources to cover this loss,” said Mohammad Mehdi Mirzaamini, a carpet designer and professor at the Shiraz University of Arts.

He has no power to invest in the rug industry and it is clear that handmade rugs are not a government priority. You are here: Home 1 / Iranian Arts and Crafts and Notes 2 / A Complete Guide to Persian Carpet Patterns in Different Cities of Iran

The presentation of the beautiful heritage, historical monuments and artistic works of Iran has always fascinated me throughout my life. Traces of happy charm are still visible to me since I chose literature and creative writing as my career… So here it is; I travel, I meet, I meet, and I write every drop so you can feel its magical wonder through my lens.

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Carpets and rugs are a language; They tell us about many battles and intertwinings, and for those who know how to listen, it is a wonderful story of love and patience, or of a very long time.

As soon as people settled and started living outside the caves, they must have started thinking about building something to sit on; Maybe

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