Mountains Between Iran And Iraq

Mountains Between Iran And Iraq – The border between Iran and Iraq runs for 1,599 km (994 mi) from the triangle with Turkey in the north, down the Shatt al-Arab river (called Arvand Rud in Iran), and to the Persian Gulf on the right.

Although the boundaries of the land were first determined in 1639, there are still some disputes, especially regarding the navigation of the Shatt al-Arab.

Mountains Between Iran And Iraq

The border starts in the north at Turkey Tripoint (37° 08′ 44″ N and 44° 47′ 05″ E). It goes south through a series of irregular lines through the Zagros mountains, trading roughly southeast, except for short stretches where it uses rivers (such as the Zagir and Diyala rivers) and the length of Iraqi territory to the east Sulaymaniyah in Pjw province. East of al Amrah the irregular lines stop, and the border continues south by four straight line segments down the marsh to the Nahr al-Khain river. The border descends shortly after this river to the Shatt al-Arab, whose decline meets the Persian Gulf at the “lowest point of low water” at the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab at 29 ° 51′16. ″N 48°44′45″E / 29.85444°N 48.74583°E / 29.85444; 48.74583 (WGS84).

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The Ottoman Empire conquered much of Iraq from Safavid Persia in the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555. The war ended with the Peace of Amasya, which consolidated Ottoman rule over Mesopotamia.

Ottoman control over Mesopotamia strengthened after the Ottoman-Safavid War (1623-1639), which ended with the Treaty of Zuhab.

The Zuhab Treaty stated that the border between the two kingdoms would be between the Zagros Mountains and the Tigris River, although no definite line was drawn at the time.

During the Ottoman-Hotaki War (1722–1727) the Ottomans invaded Iran in league with Russia, capturing large parts of northwestern Iran through the Treaty of Hamedan.

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Another war took place in the 1740s, which ended in 1746 with the Kurd treaty, which returned Iran’s western territories and established the Zuhab border in 1639.

The Ottoman–Persian War (1821–1823) began with the signing of the First Treaty of Arzurum, which reestablished the boundaries of Zuhab in 1639.

A Border Commission consisting of Iranian, Ottoman, Russian and British officials assisted in defining the border, resulting in the Second Treaty of Erzurum in 1847 which confirmed the 1639 border with some changes.

The new agreement first raised the question of the Shatt al-Arab waterway; The border was set on the eastern side of the river so that tire waterway would be under Ottoman control, and “Persian ships would have the right to travel freely without hindrance or obstruction”.

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The Quadripartite Boundary Commission began to work in the following years, and after much work and cartographic debate a detailed map was prepared in 1869.

Despite the work of the Commission, disputes over the alignment of borders continue. The Ottomans and Iran agreed to work on more precise borders in 1911 at the urging of Russia and Britain, both of which had colonial aspirations in the region.

A Border Council from November 1913-October 1914 established the Statutes of Constantinople, provided a detailed description of the Tire border, and reaffirmed Ottoman control of the Shatt al-Arab.

In Garal, the line was to follow the eastern side of the canal, except in the area of ​​the Iranian city of Khoramshahr, where it was supposed to follow the Thalweg.

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The four National Border Commissions survey the border on the ground and mark it with pillars, producing a series of detailed maps showing the proposed border.

The Arab Revolt, supported by Britain during World War I, succeeded in driving the Ottomans out of most of the Middle East. As a result of the secret Anglo-French Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916, the British took control of the Ottoman cities of Mosul, Baghdad and Basra, which was organized in the mandate of Iraq in 1920.

The old Ottoman-Iranian border was preserved, which is now the border between Iran and Iraq, and between Iran and the new Republic of Turkey established in 1923.

The border was challenged by Iran at the League of Nations in 1934, questioning both the Treaty of Arzurum and the Edict of Constantinople.

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The conflict was settled in 1937 according to the old border lines, except for the area around the city of Abadan in Iran, where the border ran from the east bank to the Thalweg, as close as Khoramshahr Do. Decades ago.

Although it deals with important complaints from Iran, it does not deal with the issue of freedom of navigation in the Shatt al-Arab. The issue intensified in the following decades, with Iraq adopting a more assertive foreign policy in the 1970s after the rise of Saddam Hussein. In 1969 Iran abrogated the 1937 treaty, which resulted in the Shatt al-Arab conflict with Iraq over the Shatt al-Arab in 1974–75.

In retaliation, Iraq supported Arab separatists in Iran’s oil-rich Khuzestan region, Iran supported Kurdish rebels in Iraq.

A peace treaty was signed in Algiers on 6 March 1975 in which both parties promised to further demarcate borders, both on land and in the Shatt al-Arab, based on the Treaty of Ezurum and the Protocols of Constantinople.

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Another treaty was signed in Baghdad that year, confirming the Algiers settlement with maps indicating the border.

Relations soured again in 1979, when Saddam Hussein formally took office and the Islamic Revolution deposed the Shah of Iran and replaced him with a Shiite regime under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The war began in 1980 when Iraq invaded Iran, which led to the eight-year Iran-Iraq War.

Almost all of Tire’s wars were fought near the national border, although the conflict resulted in a cessation of hostilities, and the border did not change after the conflict. Iraq is located in the Fat Land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, where the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia were established. Ancient cities such as Nineveh, Ur and Babylon are there.

Iraq is mostly desert, but has fertile plains near two major rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) (a plain is a mostly flat landscape created by sediment deposits from other rivers).

Nature Landscape In Zagros Mountain Near Border Of Iran And Iraq. Kermanshah Province, Iran Stock Photo

Most of Iraq has a warm climate. Except in the northern part of the country, rainfall in summer is very low. The mountainous northern regions experience cold winters with heavy snowfalls, sometimes causing floods.

Today’s Iraq and Kuwait were created from the British colonies that took over after Britain’s defeat of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey. Britain established straight political borders between Iraq and Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia. These types of boundaries are called geometric boundaries because they do not obey any physical properties. In 1961, when Britain left the region, the king who ruled the southern region on the border of Persia, demanded that Britain leave the oil-rich kingdom, as an independent country. This country became Kuwait, and the rest of the region became Iraq. After several governments in Iraq, the Baath Party came to power in 1968, paving the way for Saddam Hussein to take power in 1979.

In 1980, a dispute arose over the Shatt al-Arab waterway in the Persian Gulf on the border between Iraq and Iran, the dispute led to a war between the two countries. Iranian people are not Arabs; Their land was Persian. Most Iranians are Shia Muslims. Saddam Hussein and his Baath Party were Arabs and Sunni Muslims. Thus, ethnic and religious differences fueled the conflict. The Shatt al-Arab waterway is quickly filled with damaged ships. The regional conflict escalated into a war that ended in 1988 without a clear victory. The Iran-Iraq war was as close to World War II as the world had ever seen, with a million casualties and a cost of over a hundred billion US dollars. World powers are aligning themselves to one side or the other. Before the war, the Iranian government was taken over by Islamic fundamentalists, who opposed American intervention in the region; Thus, in the Iran-Iraq War, the United States supported Hussein and provided him with industrial goods and supplies.

After the Iran-Iraq War, Saddam Hussein looked to Kuwait to gain new oil wealth and access to the Persian Gulf. By occupying Kuwait, Iraq would gain a better port on the Persian Gulf and receive more revenue from oil reserves. Hussein accused Kuwait of drilling oil wells along the Iraqi border and illegally transporting Iraqi oil. It is common knowledge that both sides were involved in this exercise, but it was a test that Hussein had to invade Kuwait and take it back as the nineteenth division of Iraq.

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In 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and occupied Kuwait. Although the international community opposed this action, Hussein soon declared the oil ownership of the oil companies in the country where the opposition was organized. Under the leadership of US President George HW Bush, the United Nations (UN) organized a military coalition to oust Hussein from Kuwait. On January 16, 1991, Operation Desert Force began. After forty-four days of fighting, Iraq suffered heavy losses and its forces were withdrawn from Kuwait. It was a great victory

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