Natural Resources In Iran – Iran has several large rivers, but the only navigable one is the Karon, some of which are very rough and irregular. The 890 km long Karun River flows in the southwestern part of the country and empties into the Shat al-Arab, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in Iraq. The few streams that enter the central plateau are scattered in the salt marsh. All rivers are seasonal and different. Spring floods cause great damage, While summer rivers have low flows when many rivers disappear. However, the nature reserve is underground, finding its way through underground canals (kants) and springs. It can also be drilled with water wells. 
The average annual precipitation is estimated at 228 mm, ranging from 50 mm in parts of the central basin to more than 1,500 mm in certain coastal areas near the Caspian Sea. 30% of the precipitation occurs as snow and the rest as rain.   ] The average annual precipitation exceeds 830 mm, belonging to arid and semi-arid regions. 
Natural Resources In Iran
Of the 406 billion cubic meters (BCM)  of average annual rainfall, an estimated 68% evaporates before reaching rivers. The total annual long-term renewable resource is estimated at 120BCM,  of which about 78BCM enters the surface.
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Surface recharge is estimated at around 45BCM per year, of which 26% originates from qanats (underground distribution systems) and springs, and 74% from wells. The availability per capita is about 1,500 cubic meters, down from 7,000 cubic meters per person in 1956.
Iran is divided into six main water catchment areas and 31 small water catchment areas. The six basins are: the central plateau (Markazi) in the center of the country (824,400 km2), the Lake Urmia basin in the northwest (51,800 km2), the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the west and south (424,500 km2). formerly known as Hamon) in the east (103,200 square kilometers), the Kareh Qom basin (formerly known as Sarx) in the northeast (44,200 square kilometers), and the Caspian basin in the north (Kazar, 174,000 square kilometers). ) (Map 2).  Except for the Persian Gulf and Oman basins, all these basins are internal basins. About half of the country’s renewable resources; Located in the Persian Gulf and in the valleys of Oman, occupies a quarter of the country’s territory.  In contrast, less than a third of the recoverable resources are in the Central Basin, which covers more than half of the country. With an area of 424, or 240 square kilometers, the Caspian Sea is the largest inland sea in the world and is approximately 22 meters below sea level.
Figure 2: Main water areas in Iran in 2016: a) percentage (%) of the total area of the country b) percentage (%) of the total rainfall. 
The land holds 33.5 BCM per year of Iran’s total domestic renewable resources of 123 BCM per year. The land is the source of almost two-thirds of Iran’s irrigated area and provides more than 43% of agricultural needs. 
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Annual withdrawals of 63.8 BCM exceed total infiltration by 58 BCM, resulting in 5.6 BCM of overdevelopment nationwide. Most of the development takes place in the central valley, where there are unusable lands.  Iran has about 650,000 wells, legal and illegal, 39,000 qanats and 146,000 springs .
Despite strong waste disposal efforts in Iran, recycling of processed waste is not widely practiced in the urban sector, mainly for cultural reasons. In recent years, municipalities are increasingly using treated waste in municipal services such as green development and maintenance. 
The history of desalination in Iran begins in 1960, when a small desalination facility with a capacity of 1,000 cubic meters per day was installed on Khark Island. In 2020, approximately 73 desalination units were operating in different regions of the country, mainly in the south, with a total capacity of 420,000 cubic meters per day. Most installed desalination systems are powered by fossil fuel. The largest desalination plant in Iran is in Bandar Abbas. It started working in December 2018 for the first phase using reverse osmosis technology with an initial production capacity of 20,000 cubic meters per day. The project cost $204 million and was funded by the private sector. The facility will be upgraded to produce 100,000 cubic meters per day. 
In 2020, the government reportedly plans to install 50 more desalination plants, serving 45 million people in 17 countries. The new plants are expected to be operated at least in part by (small) nuclear reactors. However, little information is available on the cost, financing or environmental impact of these desalination facilities. 
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The authorities provide treatment for alcohol use. In 2019, the total number of medicinal plants was 190, including 5 major factories in Tehran, serving 12 million people .
Iran’s resources are polluted from poor waste management and solid waste management. About two-thirds of the waste from industrial facilities enters surface and underground resources without any treatment.  Furthermore, the lack and overuse of waste disposal networks, especially in large cities, pollutes newly available resources and prevents their use .
 Fahmi, H., 2012. Overview of IR Resource Management in Iran, Ministry of Energy of Iran.
 Ghazaie, S.H., Sadeghi, K., Sokolova, E., Fedorovich, E., and Shirani, A., 2019. Nuclear Disarmament in Iran, Status and Prospects. In E3S Conference Network (vol. 140, p. 04001). EDP Science. Available at https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201914004001
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 Yazdandoost, F., 2016. Dams, Drought and Scarcity in Iran Today. Iran Studies, 49(6), pp. 1017-1028. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/00210862.2016.1241626 Until the early 1960s, miners worked by hand, with mine owners transporting ore to refineries by truck, train, donkey or camel. As public and private enterprises opened new mines and quarries, they introduced mechanized production methods. Mining includes refining and processing.
Oil production and processing is by far the most important economic activity in Iran, as well as the highest income generating activity, despite the growing importance of natural gas production. The state-run National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) produces oil for export and domestic consumption. The oil is transported by pipeline to terminals on Khark Island in the Persian Gulf, from where it is shipped in tankers around the world. Iran’s main refinery in Abadan was destroyed in the war with Iraq, but the government rebuilt the facility and production returned to pre-war levels. NIOC also operates refineries in Eṣfahān, Shirāz, Lāvān Island, Tehrān and Tabrīz; Some were destroyed by Iraqi forces but resumed production. The plants produce a variety of refined products, including jet fuel from the Abadan plant and fuel used in the home heating and transportation industries.
Iran’s vast natural gas reserves are more than a tenth of the world’s total. In addition to the country’s gas fields in the mountains of Alborz and Khorasan, oil fields were discovered and began to be produced in the Persian Gulf near Asalua, the coast of the Caspian Sea region, and especially in southern Iran – the latter region. . The South Pars oil field is one of the richest in the world. Food lines in Israel lead to Tehran, Kashan, Usafia, Shiraz, Mashhad, Ahvaz and the industrial city of Alborez near Qazvin. Iran’s two state-owned natural gas fields are the largest gas pipelines in the Middle East, and Iran is under contract to supply Russia, Eastern Europe, Pakistan, Turkey and India through pipelines being built in neighboring countries, which are on the main road. Designed to connect the main routes of Iran and its customers to connect them.
The petrochemical industry, which was concentrated in the south of the country, expanded rapidly before the Islamic revolution. It was also badly damaged during the Iran-Iraq War, but has been largely restored to its pre-war condition. Rāzī (formerly Shāhpūr) Petrochemical Company in Bandar-e Khomeynī (formerly Bandar-e Shāhpūr), a subsidiary of the National Petrochemical Company of Iran, produces ammonia, phosphates, sulfur, liquefied petroleum gas and light petroleum. .
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In addition to the large coal mines located in Khorāsān, Kermān, Semnān, Māzandarān and Gīlān, several smaller mines are located north of Tehran and in the Āz̄arbāyjān and Eṣfahān provinces. Lead, zinc and other minerals are distributed throughout the country. Kerman is the center of Iran’s copper industry; Copper is mined throughout the country. Only since the 1990s has Iran mined precious metals such as uranium and gold, which are now mined and refined for commercial profit. Iran also mines resistant minerals in clay, chalk, limestone, gypsum, ocher and kaolin (China clay).
Until the 20th century, the sources of energy in Iran were almost exclusively wood and coal. Oil, gas and coal are currently used to heat and produce most of the electricity in the country. The dam system produces electricity (which also provides water for field irrigation).
The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEO) was established in 1973 to create a network of more than 20 nuclear energy organizations.
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