Shia Religious Sites In Iran

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Top: Fatima Masumeh Temple, second: Bagh-e Gonbad-e Sabz, Great Timcheh of Qom, third: Feyziyeh Madras, Qom Jamkaran Mosque, bottom: Panoramic view of downtown Qom (all items were from left to right)

Shia Religious Sites In Iran

Coordinates: 34°38′24″N 50°52′35″E / 34.64000°N 50.87639°E / 34.64000; 50.87639 Coordinates: 34°38′24″N 50°52′35″E  /  34.64000°N 50.87639°E  / 34.64000; 50.87639

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Qum (also spelled Ghom, Ghum or Qum) (Persian: قم [ɢom] (list)) is the seventh largest metropolis

In 2016 csus had 1,201,158 inhabitants. It is located on the banks of the Kum River.

Qum is considered holy in Shia Islam because it is home to the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, the sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida.

(Persian Imam Reza; 789-816). The city is the site of the world’s largest Shiite fair and a major pilgrimage site, visited annually by some 20 million pilgrims, most of whom are Iranian, as well as other Shiite Muslims from around the world. .

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Qum is also famous for Persian soft caramel known as sohan (Persian سوهان), which is considered a souvenir of the city and is sold by 2,000-2,500 sohan shops.

Qom has become a vibrant industrial center, in part because of its proximity to Tehran. It is a regional distribution center for oil and petroleum products, natural gas pipelines from Bandar Anzali and Tehran, and an oil pipeline from Tehran runs through Qom to the Abadan refinery in the Persian Gulf. Kumas flourished even more when in 1956 oil was discovered near the city of Sarajevo and a large oil refinery was built between Como and Tehran.

Qum, the capital of Qum province, is located 125 km south of Tehran on a low plain. This city, considered holy by Shiite Muslims, houses the shrine of Imam Reza’s sister, Fatimeh Masumeh. The city is located on the border of the Iranian desert (Kavir-e Markazi). in 2011 1,074,036 inhabitants lived,

Since the revolution, the number of clerics has increased from about 25,000 to more than 45,000, while the number of non-clericals has more than tripled to about 700,000. Considerable sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes go to the Qom na t Marja’ -e taqlid, or “follow the source”.

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The number of seminaries in Qum is now more than fifty, and the number of research institutes and libraries is approaching two hundred and fifty.

Another very popular religious pilgrimage that used to be outside the city of Qom but is now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Kom’s proximity to Tehran allowed the clergy to easily control state affairs and make decisions. Many grand ayatollahs have offices in Tehran and Qom; many people simply commute between the two cities as they are only 156 kilometers or 97 miles apart. To the southeast of Kum is the ancient city of Kashan. Directly south of Como are the cities of Delian, Mahalat, Narak, Pardisan City, Kahak and Jasb. In the neighborhood west of Qum live Tafresh, Saveh and Ashtian and Jafarieh. The city of Arak (the industrial capital of Iran) is located southwest of the city of Qom.

Qum has a hot desert climate bordering on a cool desert climate (Köpp BWh borders BWk) with low annual rainfall due to its distance from the sea. It is located near the height of the subtropical anticyclone. Summer weather is very hot and largely rainless, while winter weather can range from warm to cold – as Siberian air masses are pushed south by the Elburz mountains blocking Europe – freezing. An example of the latter situation was in 2008. in January, when the lowest temperature is on the 15th dropped to -23 °C or -9.4 °F, the previous similar situations being in 1964. January and to a lesser extent in 1950. January 1972 month of January. and in 1972 December. .

The highest temperature recorded was 47 °C (117 °F) in 2010. on July 11, and the lowest recorded temperature was −23 °C (−9 °F) in 2008. January 15

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The Perst city of Qom in central Iran dates back to ancient times. Pre-Islamic history can be partially documented, although earlier eras remain unclear. Excavations at Tepe Sialk show that the region has been inhabited since ancient times (Ghirshman and Vand Berghe), and more detailed studies have revealed traces of large inhabited cities south of Como from the 4th and 1st millennia BC. Although nothing is known about the site from the Elamite, Med and Achaemid periods, there are important archaeological remains from the Seleucid and Parthian periods, the most famous of which are the ruins of Khurha (about 70 kilometers southwest of Qum). important remains. Their dating and purpose have given rise to long and controversial debates and interpretations, as they have been variously interpreted and interpreted as the remains of a Sasanian temple or a Seleucid Dionysian temple or a Parthian complex. Its exact function is still debated, but a contribution by Wolfram Kleiss indicates a Parthian palace that was a station next to the highway and was in use until Sasanian times.

However, the recently published 1955 The results of excavations carried out by Iranian archaeologists have revived an old thesis about a Seleucid religious building.

In addition to Khurhos, already known as Khor Abad in the 9th century, several other remains from this era have been discovered in the region, including four Parthian heads found at Qum, now housed in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran.

The possible appearance of Qom in the form of Greek names in two ancient geographical works (Peutinger’s Tabula and Ptolemy’s Geographical Tables) remains doubtful.

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The Sasanian era offers many archaeological finds and remains, in addition to several sources of Qom mtion. From an archaeological point of view, the most interesting building is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar Kume itself, which has long been thought to serve religious purposes, while more detailed research indicates an administrative use.

Some of these are mentioned by Qomi, who also lists a number of other fire temples in the urban area of ​​Prest Qom and its region, of which no archaeological traces remain, although the site of one fire temple is probably comparable to the present Masjed. e Emām. in the city.

According to Qomi, the most important fire temple in the area was in the nearby village of Dizian.

Tāriḵ-e Qom and some other sources also refer to important historical figures of the Sasanian era associated with Qum and its region. They shed light on the reign of the first Sasanian king, Ardashir I, who fought his decisive battles at Qum.

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And the collapse of the Sasanian Empire, which is extensively reported by Ebn Aʿṯam Kufi and Nehāyat al-Erab and names a certain Šērzād as satrap of the region.

The existence of an urban settlement in the Sasanian era is further supported by Middle Persian sources (literary sources, inscriptions and seals) that in the time of Shapur I and Kawād I the names Godmān/Gomān and Ērān Win(n)ārd Kawād, both of which can be identified as Qom.

In general, it can be assumed that Qum functioned as a small administrative unit throughout the Sasanian era. The urban structure of the Sasanian settlement of Kumas can probably be compared to the city-type of Ctesiphon (Or. Madāʾ) and consisted of several villages and towns with larger settlements of Abaraštejān, Mamajjān and Jamkarān, which were loosely connected by defensive devices. .

The actual process of the Arab conquest of Qum is difficult to decipher from the surviving Arab sources. According to Balāḏori, the first temporary conquest of Qum took place in 644. 23 years old Abu Musa Ashaari after several days of fighting (although Abu Musa’s route through western Persia, as told by Balāḏori, seems somewhat confusing). It remains unclear who Kumo’s defenders were; the core of resistance was probably the fleeing Sasanians and local soldiers returning from major battles with the Arabs. The area remained intact for 60 years after the initial conquest and was probably administered from Isfahan.

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The first permanent settlement of Arab settlers in Qum occurred through Mukhtar al-Thaqafi and Moṭarref b. rebellion Moḡira b. Shaʿba in 66–77/685–96, when small groups of refugees moved there, and Qum itself was affected by fighting between the Umayyad state and the rebels.

A decisive step in the subsequent development of the city of Qom occurred when a group of Ashar Arabs arrived in the area. These Ashaari originated from Jeme, and the first prominent figure among them was the first conqueror of the Qom region, the aforementioned Abu Musa Ashaari. “Abd-Allah b. Saʿd and Aḥwaṣ b. Both grandsons of Musa’s cousin were sad and led the group of tears

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