Mountains Between Turkey And Iran

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Mountains Between Turkey And Iran

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Identifying Priority Core Habitats And Corridors For Effective Conservation Of Brown Bears In Iran

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Satellite View Map Of Middle East Arabian Peninsula Reliefs And Mountains Israel Turkey Syria Iraq Jordan Egypt Iran Saudi Arabia 3d Render Stock Photo

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Aerial View Of The Road Leading To Dogubayazit From Igdir. Plateau Around Mount Ararat, Mountains And Hills. Eastern Turkey On The Border With Armenia And Iran Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free

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Kurds In ‘mountain Prison’ Cower As Turkey Fights Pkk With Drones In Iraq

Other unclassified cookies are those that are analyzed and have not yet been assigned to any category. Iraq is located in the fertile crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, where the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia were founded. Ancient cities such as Nineveh, Ur and Babylon were located here. Present-day Iraq and Kuwait emerged from British mandated territory gained after Britain’s defeat of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Britain has created direct political borders between Iraq and Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia. These types of boundaries are called geometric boundaries because they don’t follow any physical characteristics. In 1961, when Britain withdrew from the region, the Emir who controlled the southern region bordering the Persian Gulf asked Britain to separate his oil-rich kingdom into an independent country. This country has become Kuwait and the rest of the region has become Iraq. After a series of governments in Iraq, the Baath Party came to power in 1968, paving the way for Saddam Hussein’s accession to power in 1979.

The two ethnic divisions are Arabs and Kurds. The two religious divisions of Islam are Shia and Sunni. Karbala and Najaf have holy places for Shia Muslims.

Disagreements arose in 1980 over the Shatt al-Arab waterway in the Persian Gulf on the border between Iraq and Iran, and the disputes led to war between the two countries. Iranians are not Arabs; their ethnicity is Persian. Most Iranians are Shia Muslims. Saddam Hussein and his Baath party were Arab and Sunni Muslims. Ethnic and religious differences thus fueled the conflict. The Shatt al-Arab stream quickly filled with debris. The battle here escalated into an all-out war that ended in 1988 with no one claiming victory. The Iran-Iraq war was the closest the world has ever come to World War III, with over a million casualties and over a hundred billion dollars in costs. The world powers have taken sides on one side or the other. Before the war, the Iranian government had been taken over by Islamic fundamentalists who opposed American intervention in the region; therefore, in the Iran-Iraq war, the United States supported Hussein and provided him with industrial supplies and materials.

After the Iran-Iraq war, Saddam Hussein turned to Kuwait to acquire new oil wealth and expand access to the Persian Gulf. By assuming control of Kuwait, Iraq would gain an excellent port in the Persian Gulf and would derive more revenue from its oil reserves. Hussein accused Kuwait of obliquely drilling oil wells along the Iraqi border and extracting legally Iraqi oil. He was known to have both sides involved in this practice, but it was the pretext Hussein needed to invade Kuwait and reclaim it as Iraq’s 19th province.

Afghan Refugees Find A Harsh And Unfriendly Border In Turkey

In 1990, the Iraqi army invaded and occupied Kuwait. Although the world community opposed this action, resistance was only organized after Hussein nationalized all oil assets of international oil companies. Under the leadership of US President George HW Bush, the United Nations (UN) organized a military coalition to oust Hussein from Kuwait. Operation Desert Storm began on January 16, 1991. After forty-five days of fighting, Iraq was crushed and its army was driven out of Kuwait. It was a big victory for the coalition. It was at that moment that President Bush publicly announced the emergence of a potential new world order. Kuwait was not a democracy but a monarchy headed by an emir. Obviously, the war was not a war for democracy; it was a war for control of resources.

When it became apparent that Hussein was going to lose Kuwait, his forces killed all of the oil installations and burned all of the oil wells in Kuwait. His attitude was that if he couldn’t get the oil, nobody would. It was one of the worst oil-related environmental disasters in history. Oil flowed into the Persian Gulf, covering the surface of the water up to three feet thick. Most of the mammals, birds and organisms that live on the surface of the water are dead. The oil flowed over the desert sand into large oil lakes. Air pollution from burning oil wells blotted out the sun and caused serious health problems.

To prevent Iraq from disintegrating after Operation Desert Storm, coalition forces allowed Hussein to remain in power. Ethnically and religiously, Iraq is divided into three main groups who generally don’t get along. Sunni Arabs dominate central Iraq in an area often referred to as the Sunni Triangle, which includes the three cities of Baghdad, Tikrit (Hussein’s hometown), and Ramadi. Sunnis were the most loyal to the Husseini government. Southeastern Iraq is dominated by Arabs who follow the Shia division of Islam, which is also followed by the majority of the Iranian population. The group, of Kurdish ethnicity and following a Sunni division, dominates northern Iraq. Kurds are not Arabs or Persians; on the contrary, they came from somewhere in northern Europe centuries ago with their own religion, language and customs. Many have converted to Islam.

Hussein was a Sunni Muslim and when he was in power he kept the other two groups at bay. He used chemical weapons against the Kurds during the Iran-Iraq war. In 1988 he used chemical weapons on the Kurdish city of Halabja, killing about 10% of the 80,000 people living there. Thousands of Kurds have died in new attacks and thousands more continue to suffer from serious health problems. After Operation Desert Storm, Hussein pushed the Kurds north until the United Nations and the United States limited him to the 36th parallel, which became a safe zone for the Kurds. The Shia Arab population in the south frequently clashed with Hussein’s army in an attempt to gain more political power, and Hussein subjected them to similar conditions and treatment.

A Voyage Through Turkish Kurdistan

A future Kurdistan would be the main part of Iran, Iraq and Turkey and a corner of Syria. The city of Diyarbakir in Türkiye would be Kurdish

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